He was not anti-Hinduism, Sikhism, or Shi’ism. In this, he gave the orders that Quranic verses will not be written on coins. The state of religious policy during Aurangzeb can be determined by the words of M. L. Roy Choudhury, “ The year 1669 A.D. is a memorable year in the history of iconoclasm in India. The re-imposition of jizya by Aurangzeb in 1679 has also been viewed in the context of the acute unemployment among the theological classes. He was an excellent calligraphist (copyist of Quran). No part of this website contents may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior permission of Sansar Lochan, NCERT और NIOS की किताबों को खरीदें या उन्हें PDF के रूप में डाउनलोड करने के लिए क्लिक करें >, Religious Policy of Aurangzeb and Ideologies, “Religious Policy of Aurangzeb and Ideologies”. While taking his stand on the Hanafi school of Muslim law, which had been traditionally followed in India, Aurangzeb did not hesitate in issuing secular decrees, called ‘zawabit.’. The ulama also forced him into this by urging that the laying of the jizyah upon the opponents of Islam was compulsory according shari’ah. He constantly tried to portray his own actions and policies as being in accordance with the actions of his predecessors, thereby seeking legitimization. A modern scholar has argued that the efforts of Sirhindi and his successors could not erode the popularity of the Sufi saints who emphasized pantheism. Therefore, the imposition of jizya coincided with the outbreak of the Rathor war but did not imply abandonment of Akbar’s policy of allying with the Rajputs and other elements. After 1679, it seems that Aurangzeb's zeal to destroy temples decreased, as after this, there was no evidence of any large-scale destruction of temples in the south (between 1681 and his death in 1707). He restored Islam to its original position as the religion of the court and the country. Aurangzeb reversed the policy which was enunciated by Akbar and pursued by Jahangir and Shah Jahan.The Rajputs were the greatest obstacle in his pursuance of policy against the Hindus. His reversal of Akbar’s policy of religious toleration resulted in weakening the entire structure of the Mughal empire. Religious Policy At the beginning of his reign, Aurangzeb prohibited the kalma being inscribed on coins, as it trampled underfoot or be defiled while passing from one hand to another. Aurangzeb’s religious policy was largely responsible for the downfall of the Mughal Empire. The re-imposition of jizya has been represented as marking the culmination of the spirit of religious bigotry which led to the alienation of the Rajputs, Marathas and the Hindus and hastened the disintegration of the empire. Aurangzeb. Some evidences suggest that Aurangzeb wanted to have the clergy on his side, as the clergy exercised a powerful hold on the minds of men. The author goes on to list the various acts of domination or prejudice perpetuated by Aurangzeb during his supremacy of 50 years. According to some, he is known to have turned Akbar's policy of religious toleration and thus weakening the loyalty of the hindus towards Mughals in turn, leading to communal uproars and uprisings which eroded the vitality of the empire. 1. (ii) To adopt anti-Hindu measures. Rajput policies adopted by Aurangzeb were strict and stern. During the second phase, Aurangzeb was inclined to believe that he could drive a wedge between the Deccani rulers and the Marathas by appealing to the religious sentiments of the former, and holding out various material inducements to their employees. However, when the Maratha resistance stiffened after 1698, he wrote darkly to Zulfiqar Ali Khan that ‘the demolition of a temple is possible at any time, as it cannot walk away from its place’. It is significant that shortly after Aurangzeb’s death; the lead in abolishing the jizya was taken by Asad Khan and Zulfiqar Khan, two of the premier nobles of Aurangzeb. As a result of these orders, a number of temples such as the famous temples of Vishwanath at Banaras and the temple of Keshava Rai at Mathura built by Bir Singh Deo Bundela during the reign of Jahangir were destroyed and a mosque; erected in their place. At the outset, he remained basically within the framework of the religious policy set out by Shahjahan. The religious policy of Akbar is known as 'Din-e-ilahi', which literally means the integrity of all the religions. Being a fanatic Sunni, Aurangzeb observed and practiced the principles of Islam strictly; he had such faith in Islam that he refused even to think that there could be truth in other religions as well. Aurangzeb encountered political opposition from a number of quarters, such as the Marathas, Jats, etc., as they had adopted a new stance. “The religious policy of Aurangzeb was disastrous. Aurangzeb as a ruler has attracted a lot of attention due to his policies of administration in the empire especially religious policies. Thus, Aurangzeb impressed upon the foremost nobles of Bijapur, that his actions were directed against Sambhaji. Aurangzeb again introduced the jizyah (or the poll tax) (it was abolished by Akbar). Religious policies of Aurangzeb There are three main categories of scholars regarding views of Aurangzeb’s religious policies: Jadunath Sarkar, S.R. Aurangzeb’s relation with the ulema is also of importance. The repair works of old temples were prohibited in 1664 and on 9 April 1669 came the order (mentioned earlier) to destroy all schools where brahmans were lecturing on the Hindu scriptures in public. He had the reputation of being orthodox, God fearing Muslim. This argument has however, been contested with the counter-argument that Hindus had stubbornly clung to their faith despite the prevalence of Muslim rule in the subcontinent for over 400 years. Aurangzeb was a staunch Sunni and wanted to protect and strengthen Islam particularly its Sunni faith. But there is no evidence of any such attempt. In 1683, when he visited the caves of Ellora, he noted that images with life like forms have been carved and did not try to destroy them. Emperor Aurangzeb of India's Mughal Dynasty November 3, —March 3, was a ruthless leader who, despite his willingness to take the throne over the bodies of his brothers, went on to create a "golden age" of Indian civilization. The contemporary European travelers suggest a different explanation of the measure. According to Manucci, Aurangzeb imposed jizya for two reasons: first, because by this time his treasuries had begun to shrink owing to the expenditure on his campaigns; secondly, to force Hindus to become Mohammedans. Likewise, he prohibited singing in the court and the official musicians were pensioned off. . Polity Bharat Ka Samvidhan: Ek Parichaya: Ek Parichaya (Hindi), Sansar डेली करंट अफेयर्स, 30 November 2020 - Sansar Lochan, Life of Basava and Shakti Vishishtadvaita Philosophy, Causes of the Downfall of the Mughal Empire, Reforms of Alauddin Khilji : Administrative, Military, Revenue & Economic, Town Planning of Indus Valley Civilization : Salient Features, Lord Curzon : Reforms and the administrative measures, Lord Ripon (1880-1884) – A well-meaning Governor-General, Itolizumab (rDNA origin) – A Monoclonal Antibody | UPSC, Know about Hagia Sophia Controversy | UPSC, Administration of Lord Lytton (1876-1880). What people view as Aurangzeb’s botched and discriminatory religious… As a great puritan ruler he adopted the following measures: Thus, the fanatic and impartial whole policy of Aurangzeb transformed a religious denomination of Sikhs into a garrison and military sect. The religious fanaticism of Aurangzeb overshadowed his virtues. What people view as Aurangzeb’s botched and discriminatory religious… Aurangzeb struck hard against enemies who threatened the integrity or peace of the Mughal state, no matter their status or religion. Religious Policy of Aurangzeb Religious Policy of Akbar was orthodox and he displayed extreme intolerance in his religious attitude and practice. According to Sarkar, these and other orthodox measures of Aurangzeb were an insidious attempt to establish an Islamic state in India. Whereas, Aurangzeb was a staunch Muslim. Thus, if Aurangzeb’s objective had been to effect the forcible conversions of the Hindus, he might have attempted it in the newly conquered territories in the Deccan. He created a separate department to enforce moral codes under a high-powered officer called Muhtasib. Thereupon, many temples built in Orissa during the last ten to twelve years were also destroyed. The official view as to why Aurangzeb re-imposed the jizya was that he was keen to promote the faith and laws of Islam. The main necessity of Aurangzeb now was to subdue and win over the large number of Hindu rajas, zamindars operating in the area. It resulted not only in the failure of Aurangzeb but also participated in the downfall of the empire itself. He was a strict … His other sons also had to face his wrath on various occasions. His great-grandfather had striven to remove the religious and social barriers which divided the various classes of his subjects, and, though exception can be taken to his methods, none can be taken to the end which he had in view. Aurangzeb declared in a farman granted to a priest of Benaras in 1659, that his religion forbade him to allow construction of new temples, but there was no bar on the destruction of old ones. In 1665, Aurangzeb again ordered to destroy these temples. In his advice to posterity, Aurangzeb’s sense of self-righteousness remains. Aurangzeb was felt that he had not only become greater than administer the empire in a better way, but also to protect and strengthen particularly its Sunni Islam faith. Aurangzeb’s religious policy had two aspects i.e: (i) To promote the tenets of Islam and to ensure that the people led their lives accordingly. [71] Aurangzeb's religious policies are one of the most debated topic than those of other Mughal rulers. Sign in. He was not anti-Hinduism, Sikhism, or Shi’ism. the heretical Deccani rulers was lawful. The famous temple of Somnath, which he ordered to be destroyed, was earlier in his reign. Aurangzeb’s attitude towards temples varied according to time and circumstances. Akbar tried to harmonise all the main policies of the major religions in this new religious policy. Aurangzeb has been criticized by historians on the eve of his religious policy and administration. During this time, Aurangzeb greatly expanded the territory of the Mughal Empire. He had enlisted Hindu warrior tribes, chiefly the Rajputs, as reliable defenders of his throne. Aurangzeb had a tragic death near Ahmednagar. Even the theological elements in the emperor’s camp were not impressed by Aurangzeb’s religious propaganda. The final phase continued from 1687 up to Aurangzeb’s death in 1707. Aurangzeb reacted to these threats by emphasizing Islam as the only bond of unity in the highly segmented ruling class. She writes, “Throughout his reign Aurangzeb’s default policy was to ensure the well-being of Hindu religious institutions and their leaders. Source: MANAS[see also Aurangzeb: A Political History; Aurangzeb: Religious Policies;Mughal Empire] In Indian history, the syncretistic and communalist viewpoints have conventionally been represented, to take one case in point, by offering a contrast between the lives of the two emperors under whom the Mughal Empire was at its zenith, Akbar (reigned 1556-1605) and Aurangzeb … Though jizya was a regressive tax, and bore heavily on the poor than the rich, there is no proof of any large scale conversions during his reign on account of this measure. Aurangzeb was not interested in philosophical debates or in mysticism; however, he did not prohibit his sons from experimenting in Sufism. Aurangzeb, therefore, attempted to destroy the power of the Rajputs and annex their kingdoms. He had also handwritten copies of the Quran himself, further testifying his religiosity. Apart from being an orthodox Muslim, Aurangzeb was also a ruler. A careful study of Sarkar’s writings recommend that his assessment was mainly based on his analysis of the first half of Aurangzeb’s reign which in his opinion, climaxed by the re-imposition of jizyah and his attempt to annex Marwar and subdue Mewar. The non-Muslim who were the bulk of the population became completely alienated from him. His policy of religious persecution of the Hindus, who formed the bulk of the population of the country, hastened the fall of his dynasty. However, Aurangzeb found that the Muslim traders were taking undue advantages of this and cheating the state; therefore, he reinstated it, but kept it at half of what was charged from others. He was a strict disciplinarian who did not spare even his own sons. Religious Policy: Aurangzeb was an orthodox Sunni Muslim who did not have any faith on the other religions except his own. Had any such developments taken place, they would have been recorded. Aurangzeb crowned himself as Emperor of Delhi on July 21, 1658 and assumed the title of Alamgir. So, he came out with a Religious policy. He also built the Lahore Badshahi Masjid, and Bibi Ka Maqbara in Aurangabad for his wife Rabia. So, Aurangzeb did not understand that to rule in India, he has to be a rational person. Shah Jahan had already moved away from the liberalism of Akbar , although in a token manner rather than with the intent of suppressing Hinduism, [70] [b] and Aurangzeb took the change still further. Religious policy of Aurangzeb was based on the Islamic theory of kinship. But in order, to understand this measure, it is also necessary to understand the political, economic and religious trends of the court and the empire. The policy of laying primary importance on Islam and the Holy Law began to give way to a more pragmatic approach after Aurangzeb reached the Deccan and after the fall of Bijapur and Golconda and, the capture and execution of Sambhaji. Thanks for helping. His policy of religious persecution of the Hindus, who formed the bulk of the population of the country, hastened the fall of his dynasty. According to the shara, in a Muslim state, the payment of jizyah was obligatory, for the non-Muslims. For instance, Qazi Shaikh-ul-Islam, the sadr of the Imperial Army refused to give a fatwa that war against Muslim kings i.e. Besides this political motive, he desired to annex these states because their rulers were Shias. Aurangzeb banned the ceremony of weighing the emperor against gold and silver and other articles on his birthdays. Aurangzeb’s harsh treatment of Hindus, and the reversal of the liberal religious policies of his predecessors, particularly Akbar, have been cited as principal reasons for the disintegration of his empire. Department to enforce moral codes under a high-powered officer called Muhtasib shibli Nomani, Zahiruddin Faruki and Ishtiaq Hussain justify... 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