Bougainville appealed to the United Nations, but without success. PNG troops left Bougainville in March 1990 in the lead up to intended peace negotiations. with independent inquiries verifying the involvement of the PNG security forces. During WW II Bougainville was the scene of fierce fighting. Panguna was operated by one of the world’s largest mining companies, the Anglo-Australian Rio Tinto group, but has been mothballed since the Bougainville crisis erupted. After casting his ballot, in the historical referendum vote Saturday, Dr Momis was … ISBN 0-7315-0907-0,xi + 110 pp, maps, appendixes. Canberra Papers onStrategy andDefence. Bougainville’s estimated $58 billion in remaining copper and gold reserves has caught the attention of international mining companies and world governments. Brief History of the Autonomous Region of Bougainville (ARB) The Bougainville Peace Agreement (BPA) signed in 2001, at the Arawa Independence Oval is a joint creation by the Independent State of Papua New Guinea (PNG) and the leaders of Bougainville to resolve the Bougainville Crisis q�ߖ�x�i1T5���r���H��H�����*$�%:^�7�L���8��ZA$X���V3�%���f����LY�P��C�’�"�|n�6��\mZ��=������@�?��Dl�t��t���S�t�M��>w�~D�^$"v�>�XF�*����j�`�����/��P�Gb�����-����Pk�eR/����)�����s���0F����:���N��D]�ۊ��9�l��pD�s�s�=n���pX�W �_m��v'��n}Z�װcE-ʑvh:�+�٣�. Griffin, J. On May 17, 1990, Bougainville declared by March 1944. 5-year timeline set for Bougainville's independence from PNG. the islands of New Guinea, New Britain, New Ireland and all of the Solomon For all that has been written about it, the Bougainville Crisis risks becoming obscure in plain sight. did not democratically elect the Bougainvilleans on the delegation that signed 0000001264 00000 n H�b```f``���������À �h����Z~aqgv�R 0Oα`^����֑�֖ �6Q�Tv�> ��LTA� [�>0�g�2Ł�R Pe`(jc�b^��)7���3U���]``H�2��@� �)� endstream endobj 57 0 obj 143 endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 39 0 R /Resources 46 0 R /Contents 52 0 R /MediaBox [ 0 0 420 596 ] /CropBox [ 0 0 420 596 ] /Rotate 0 >> endobj 46 0 obj << /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text ] /Font << /TT2 48 0 R /TT4 50 0 R >> /ExtGState << /GS1 54 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /Cs5 51 0 R /Cs9 53 0 R >> >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /Ascent 731 /CapHeight 0 /Descent -284 /Flags 34 /FontBBox [ -170 -292 1419 1050 ] /FontName /PalatinoLinotype-Roman /ItalicAngle 0 /StemV 0 >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 121 /Widths [ 250 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 250 333 250 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 611 667 0 0 0 722 778 0 0 0 0 944 778 778 611 0 667 556 611 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 444 0 407 500 389 278 500 500 278 0 444 278 778 556 444 500 0 389 389 333 556 500 722 0 500 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /PalatinoLinotype-Italic /FontDescriptor 49 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /Ascent 731 /CapHeight 0 /Descent -284 /Flags 98 /FontBBox [ -162 -291 1249 1052 ] /FontName /PalatinoLinotype-Italic /ItalicAngle -15 /StemV 0 >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 150 /Widths [ 250 0 0 0 500 0 0 0 333 333 389 0 250 333 250 0 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 250 250 0 0 0 0 0 778 611 709 774 611 556 763 832 337 333 726 611 946 831 786 604 0 668 525 613 778 722 1000 0 667 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 500 553 444 611 479 333 556 582 291 234 556 291 883 582 546 601 560 395 424 326 603 565 834 516 556 500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 278 278 0 0 0 500 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /PalatinoLinotype-Roman /FontDescriptor 47 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj [ /CalRGB << /WhitePoint [ 0.9505 1 1.089 ] /Gamma [ 2.22221 2.22221 2.22221 ] /Matrix [ 0.4124 0.2126 0.0193 0.3576 0.71519 0.1192 0.1805 0.0722 0.9505 ] >> ] endobj 52 0 obj << /Length 1722 /Filter /FlateDecode >> stream By agreement of 1899 between Germany and Great Britain, Bougainville was Later, in 1975 they became part of independent Papua New Guinea. Two key events before year’s end are likely to decide the timeline for the rebuilding of the Panguna copper mine on Bougainville Island. The Bougainville Crisis: 1991 Update. for a referendum on secession, but the Papua New Guinea government did not opposition led to the resigning of the Prime Minister of PNG. In 1996 however the BTG premier was assassinated, Read More About UNPO have its own Provincial government. A decade of guerilla warfare, political struggles over identity, famine, and insecurity plagued the people of Bougainville … The German New Guinea Company as a part of their holdings that included increasingly clear that mining profits from an Australian joint venture on the 1988 separatist war with PNG breaks out. The Bougainville conflict, also known as the Bougainville Civil War, was a multi-layered armed conflict fought from 1988 to 1998 in the North Solomons Province of Papua New Guinea between PNG and the secessionist forces of the Bougainville Revolutionary Army, and between the BRA and other armed groups on Bougainville. Bougainville’s estimated $58 billion in remaining copper and gold reserves has caught the attention of international mining companies and world governments. 0000001105 00000 n New Guinea, became Mandate territories of the League of Nations and, in 1920, Thispaperwill provide first an update ofthe Bougain­ ville crisis to IS November I99I, two and a half years after the giant Panguna copper mine was forced to close and a state of emergency was declared in the province, and more than eighteen months after the govern­ some 24000 villagers. and after the defeat of Germany, the German territories, collectively called 1967 The Bougainville Copper Agreeement between PNG and Bougainville Copper Ltd (CRA’s operating subsidiary in Bougainville), is signed, giving the PNG government a 19 per cent shareholding. ANBI Informatie, Australia Watches Bougainvilleans Prepare for Referendum on Independence, Iraqi Kurdistan: Commemorate Halabja Victims, Bougainville: Still Waiting For Mineral Rights, Bougainville: Peace Process a Regional Model, Bougainville: Women Play Role In Peace Process, Kurdistan: Identity Denied in the Iraqi Constitution, Kurdistan: Human Rights Watch Recent Report, Kurdistan: Questions unanswered in Iraqi Kurdistan. The transnational company Bougainville Copper Limited (BCL), a joint venture Bougainvilleans objected to their separation from the Solomon Islands. 1900s (Early): The Catholic faith was introduced to Bougainville, by mainly German and French missionaries of the Society of Mary (MSSM), establishing their first mission station in Kieta in 1901. Port Moresby - Key dates in Papua New Guinea's Bougainville civil war: 1768: French explorer Louis-Antoine de Bougainville visits the island which bears his name. It provided over 45% of Papua New Guinea's national export revenue and was incredibly important to the economy. occupied the island early in 1942. Bathurst: Crawford House Press. The Bougainville crisis was the most severe and chronic case of violence that had occurred in the Pacific since World War II. self-determination and indigenous control of the land as the population of Bougainville During World War II, it was the site of a major campaign between forces of the Allies and Japan. The Bougainville Crisis, edited by administration, this time as a United Nations Trust territory. Moreover, noted McLeod, Bougainville is “right in the middle of a number of territories in the South Pacific. With the security situation largely Bougainville Interim Government (BIG). a blockade on the island in April 1990. Agreeing on what additional governmental powers and functions will/could be transferred to Bougainville, a timeline for transfer and their cost; ... A health and economic crisis also threatens national unity MARIAN MERCY MISSION TIMELINE. At the beginning of WW I in 1914 Bougainville was occupied by Australian PNG responded by sending in the Police Riot Squad and then the army, displacing trailer << /Size 58 /Info 42 0 R /Root 44 0 R /Prev 31099 /ID[] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 44 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Pages 40 0 R >> endobj 56 0 obj << /S 180 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 57 0 R >> stream When the mine closed in 1989, few people expected that the Bougainville crisis would be protracted. group of traditional landowners, later known as the Bougainville Revolutionary The Chairman of Bougainville Copper Limited, Rob Burns tells Business Advantage PNG two board appointments are part of the company’s strategic development. that his government had hired Sandline, a mercenary company based in South Africa, 1963 Conzinc Riotinto Australia (CRA) begins prospect­ing for copper in the mountains of central Bougainville. 1914: Australia invades. separated from the other Solomon Islands and remained under German control H�tWMs�8��W��LY�)�-�f��J2�X��� Bougainville crisis? That year, an organised Bougainville Provincial Government established in 1974 (Ghai and Regan 1992: 55–9), and disputes over its mine revenue share precipitated Bougainville’s attempted secession from PNG on 1 September 1975, just before PNG’s Independence Day. ���-@Y��1s�߻�R��r�,R ^����_��/�)%���j��WSR-��*��ʨ,h����5���mf�?='���8��$�e�ߒ���i,w���q+T���V҃QV�p���r�Ӽ(#��7�Z�;��O���~\��?�c�ɿx~�ʟa�w�qĉ�8����[LklR4��8�Ji�4�bv������=�����R�nKV���o��\^�������_�s�:yG���pGY GA_�>��3L�E`�6���u�����o˟5O�4[$�cİڳZ,J�l��KӞ'�/!=�����-�N��P�N!hHm���ᢈ*���l�������9�� lu�&ѭ�ч�4�/�c���t��XR=�%�4���rM���ccI~a,���`���\wl]Y���.�֒�� Ƭ�h%{xUFi e7:� �F��ʃ%�ےN����i�i�=�3r|�eD_�y�~&ˤ����N����X�`c����`�Vt��T��$�����N��9��p���k�'����?݅�* ���c��֒dQ��88i%�=����P��;���� ��h�:��g6n���U�������F��V��=�U��n{� #���1;۶����L�Ѳ�)>��Ot�:��ZA�=R@l6�ѭηnj��E�F7��Er �w��A[����q�J�Sg�>8m��q`����{#������q���%�u;�#{���{�0�Xh��ȥ���tI��|q���l�TA{CPv�)��}/���� P�z�)_�}�⹾c�O���O̖p�j��d{sl��qn�K�Y� An analysis of the Bougainville Crisis: its origins, motives and key players. The crisis was resolved in mid-1976, when the PNG Government agreed to constitutional provision of the hardships caused by the blockade, re-invaded Bougainville. Defeated, the PNG army left Bougainville and imposed 1975 - Bougainville provincial government votes to secede from PNG. its independence officially for the second time, from PNG and established the Agreeing on what additional governmental powers and functions will/could be transferred to Bougainville, a timeline for transfer and their cost; ... A health and economic crisis also threatens national unity 0000002857 00000 n In 1960, Australian geologists found copper in Naisioi land, Bougainville. The fight to close the mine escalated into a struggle for In January 2001 Bougainville and Papua New Guinea reached an agreement Group. 0000004707 00000 n The peace accord consists of a time-line for a referendum that should be held Bougainville Provincial Government established in 1974 (Ghai and Regan 1992: 55–9), and disputes over its mine revenue share precipitated Bougainville’s attempted secession from PNG on 1 September 1975, just before PNG’s Independence Day. Louis-Antoine de Bougainville, (born Nov. 11, 1729, Paris—died Aug. 31, 1811, Paris), French navigator who explored areas of the South Pacific as leader of the French naval force that first sailed around the world (1766–69). 0000001460 00000 n Islands later annexed the island. The Bougainville Crisis 275 Bougainville and we are defending our island from foreign ex-ploitation.’ Despite a substantial police and military presence, continued guerilla activities against mine installations and employees forced the closure of the mine in May 1989, and it remained closed throughout the year. %PDF-1.2 %���� Timeline: the history of Bougainville The mine was shut down in May 1989 and has never reopened. 1914: Australia invades. 1898: In the Berlin Conference Bougainville becomes part of German New Guinea. US troops had overtaken the island of Bougainville On the first of December 1975, two weeks before Papua New Guinea gained while the Solomon Islands went to Great Britain. No environmental impact study was carried out. to wipe out the rebel leadership in Bougainville. The Japanese Somare's government retaliates by suspending the provincial government and withholding payments to the province. 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